Friday, November 18, 2005


Kazak Zhambyl, also spelled  Dzhambul , or  Dzambul  city, southern Kazakstan. It lies at the junction of the Talas River and the Turk-Sib Railway. Auliye-Ata is one of the oldest towns of Kazakstan. It stands on the site of the ancient city of Taraz, which flourished as a stop along the Silk Road until it was destroyed by Mongol armies in the 13th century. A new town called Auliye-Ata was established on the site by the emirs of Kokand

Thursday, July 28, 2005

Macaulay, Catharine

Former union of garment and apparel workers in the United States and Canada. It was formed in 1976 by the merger of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA), a large union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, with the Textile Workers Union of America, a smaller union founded in 1939. The ACWA was originally formed when militant elements within the United

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Sable Island

Gently curving sandbar in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, 110 mi (180 km) southeast of Cape Canso. It is treeless, about 20 mi long and 1 mi wide, and comprises the exposed portion of a vast shoal on the outer edge of the continental shelf. Gradually shrinking in size and shifting slowly eastward, the island, because of unexpected shallows, has been the scene of

Sunday, July 24, 2005


Also called  Saalfelden Am Steinernen Meer,   town, Bundesland (federal province) Salzburg, west central Austria, at the southwest foot of the Steinernes Meer (Sea of Stones) Mountains, near the Saalach River southwest of Salzburg. An old market town, it is also a winter and summer resort and makes leather goods and beer. There are several castles nearby, including the 14th-century Schloss Lichtenberg. The late Gothic

Thursday, July 07, 2005

Calcareous Sponge

Any of a class (Calcispongiae, or Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. Most are small, seldom exceeding 15 cm (6 inches).

Wednesday, July 06, 2005

Cinna, Lucius Cornelius

After serving in the Social War (90–88), Cinna became consul in 87. When Sulla left Rome to fight Mithradates VI, king of Pontus, in the East, Cinna repealed Sulla's laws and threatened him with prosecution. Cinna's proposed revival of a bill of Publius Sulpicius Rufus (for the equal distribution of the newly enfranchised

Wednesday, June 29, 2005

Florentine Diamond

Clear, pale-yellow stone weighing 137 carats; of Indian origin, it was cut as a double rose with 126 facets. Once owned by Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who lost it when he fell in battle in 1477, the stone came into the possession of Pope Julius II and the Medici family early in the 16th century. Maria Theresa of Austria acquired it through her marriage (1736) to the Duke of Tuscany, and it subsequently